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Assignment: Genetic Birth Defects

Class: S.T.E.M. English I Periods: 1, 4, 5, 6, 7
Due Date:
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S.T.E.M. English I Research Paper: Genetic Birth Defects

The short research paper assignment for English I entails three major criteria:


1)          3-5 pages in length using three sources;

2)          Accurate APA documentation; you must have one print source.

3)          You may not use Wikipedia as a source

4)          Background information on the disease you pick

5)     Answering the following questions about a genetic birth defect:

 a) who discovered it/when was it first discovered?

b) what causes this defect?

c) how/when is this defect detected?

d) what does it do to the person?/what are the symptoms?

e) onset of symptoms (when, how)?

f) prevalence of disease/percentage of cases/ is it found in one group or various groups?


On your sources, highlight a) in gray, b) in yellow, c) in pink, d) in green, e) in blue/turquoise, and f) purple


**Students may need to do some research on their own before and after school.  The library does open at 8:00 am and close at 4:30 pm everyday.  Please take advantage of this.  The librarians will still be able to assist with helpful websites and databases. You can also access the library resources through the Parent Portals (without needing passwords) or through the library web page (you will need passwords). The librarians will provide this information.


How to Get a Source


1) Find a source through a book, magazine, database, internet site, or archive search.


2) Read it and make sure it has the information you need.


3) Record the reference information in the proper order and style using your APA Citation Guide.


4) Take notes on paper or copy/paste the information into a Word document. Highlight the information appropriately with colors.


5) Upload the document into Moodle. Be sure that each source is on its own document with your name at the top.



Be willing to work for this information. Do not give up…use your creativity with technology and your ability to ask intelligent questions to solve this research problem. Research is not meant to be easy.



Source Example

Jane Smith

Period 3

February 18, 2009

No author. (n.d.). NINDS leukodystrophy information page. National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke,  Retrieved February 18, 2009, from

Leukodystrophy refers to progressive degeneration of the white matter of the brain due to imperfect growth or development of the myelin sheath, the fatty covering that acts as an insulator around nerve fiber. Myelin, which lends its color to the white matter of the brain, is a complex substance made up of at least ten different chemicals.

The leukodystrophies are a group of disorders that are caused by genetic defects in how myelin produces or metabolizes these chemicals. Each of the leukodystrophies is the result of a defect in the gene that controls one (and only one) of the chemicals. Specific leukodystrophies include metachromatic leukodystrophy, Krabbé disease, adrenoleukodystrophy, Pelizaeus-Merzbacher disease, Canavan disease, Childhood Ataxia with Central Nervous System Hypomyelination or CACH (also known as Vanishing White Matter Disease), Alexander disease, Refsum disease, and cerebrotendinous xanthomatosis.

The most common symptom of a leukodystrophy disease is a gradual decline in an infant or child who previously appeared well. Progressive loss may appear in body tone, movements, gait, speech, ability to eat, vision, hearing, and behavior. There is often a slowdown in mental and physical development. Symptoms vary according to the specific type of leukodystrophy, and may be difficult to recognize in the early stages of the disease.

American Psychological Association (APA) Style



Font-                                        12 point Times New Roman


Spacing-                                  Double space


Margins-                                  One inch (all four sides)


Pagination-                              1/2 inch from top on right side-shortened title and page number


Title Page-                               Title of Paper

                                                Student Name

                                                Student Affiliation

The title page is double spaced and the information starts at 4 inches.


Pages-                                    3-5 pages typed


Reference page-                     3 sources


Internal Documentation-                     All students must use internal documentation for all quotes

                                                and paraphrases


Spelling, usage, grammar, punctuation, and capitalization do count


Binding and Presentation-      Paper clip the final draft of the paper in the following order:

                                                Title Page       


                                                Reference List

                                                No fancy binders, presentation folders, or title page.


Quotes, Paraphrases, and Plagiarism


A QUOTE is a word-for-word excerpt taken from a source and put into a paper with quotation marks and internal documentation.  This is legal and acceptable.


Example:  "Temperature records go back as far as the mid-1800s" (Smith, 2006, p.155).



A PARAPHRASE is a "translated" version of information from a source with internal documentation, but no quotation marks.  This is also legal and acceptable.

Example:  People started to keep track of weather conditions in the middle of the 1800s (Smith, 2006, p. 155).

PLAGIARISM is changing only a few words from the original quote, giving no quotation marks, and using no internal documentation.  This is illegal and unacceptable.

Example: People started keeping records of the temperature in the mid-1800s.

Using Quotes and Internal Documentation

You have already read the explanation of a quote.  It is important to use and document quotes correctly in your paper.  There are three reasons to do this:

1)         Acknowledge sources to avoid plagiarism

2)         Acknowledge sources for your readers' convenience.  Your readers may wish to read your sources for more information.

3)         Acknowledge sources as evidence.  Readers are more

likely to believe a paper based on factual evidence.


The most popular form of quoting follows: "Temperature records go back as far as the mid-1800s" (Smith, 2006, p. 155).

There are several things to note about the above quote:

1)         Quotation marks surround the information if a direct quote. No quotation

            marks if you have paraphrased the information.

2)         Following the quote or paraphrase, there is an internal documentation.

3)         The period ending the sentence is AFTER the internal documentation. 

Internal documentation is giving the author's last name, copyright date, and the page(s) from which the information came.  In the above quote, the author's last name was Smith, the work was published in 2006, and the information came from page 155 of that book.   NOTE:  you must give internal documentation for anything that you got from a source. 

Quotes more than forty words long

You need to indent one tab space, leave off the quotation marks, and put a period at the end of the quote or paraphrase as well as after the documentation.  For example:

            When Walker left her husband, she felt invigorated by the freedom that she had


            acquired for herself.  She leapt with joy, called all of her friends to her, and bought


            them all lunch and drinks.  She was amazed that she was capable of a smile.  It felt


            fresh and warm on her face, and her friends said it made her beautiful. (Smith, 2005,


            p. 99).

Then continue with the paragraph as normal.

How to Format to Start Typing Your Paper

1)  Set up margins

·         File

·         Page Setup

·         Margins

·         Top-1.0”, Bottom 0.7”, right and left 1.0”

2)  Set up double spacing

·         Format

·         Paragraph

·         Line spacing

·         Double

3)  Turn off some autoformat

·         Format

·         Autoformat

·         Options

·         Click off all under “Apply” and turn off “internet and network paths”

·         Do the above for “Autoformat” and “Autoformat as you type”

·         Click OK twice

4)  Header

·         View

·         Header and Footer

·         Right align

·         Type the first two or three words of your title and hit the space bar once

·         Click on “Insert page number”

·         Highlight title and number and make it all Times New Roman, 12 point font

·         Click close

5)  Title Page

·         Hit enter until you get to about 4 inches down on the page and center justify

·         Title, enter

·         Your full name, enter

·         S.T.E.M. Academy at Lee High School then hit control and enter

6) Essay

·         Center

·         Type title of paper, enter

·         Left justify

·         Tab

·         Start typing essay

How to create a Reference List Rough Draft

1) Copy/paste your reference information from each source onto a new Word document.

2) Double-space the document and change all text to 12 point font Times New Roman.

3)  Alphabetize your sources according to the first word of the entry. 

(Ignore the words “the,” “a,” and “an.”)

4)  Indent the second line (and more) of the entries.  Do not number or letter them.

5) Center justify the top line and type the title “References” (no quotations)


Revisions - Checlist

You, as the author of your paper, are ultimately responsible for the content and correctness of your paper.  Using this checklist is a second chance to improve your paper.  Work through the following statements and correct your paper accordingly:

1)  You need a minimum of two documentations per paragraph.  There is no maximum, but your topic sentence and ending sentence should not be a quote or paraphrase and should, therefore, not be documented. 

2) Make sure you have at least three semi-colons of your own, not used in quotes.

3)  Check the form of your citations.  The period ending the sentence should be outside of the last parentheses.  For example, “Forty-five percent of all cats have hairballs and, therefore, are disgusting animals” (Lanoux, 2007, p. 45).

4)  Make up a title that encompasses your entire paper.  It should not be cutesy or in the form of a question.

5)  Be sure your paper does not have any of the following personal pronouns: I, you, me, mine, yours, our, ours, we, my, us. 

6)  Your conclusion should be short and to the point.  Remove any cute or cliché remarks like “I hope you liked this paper.”  Or “And that is my report on Jude.”  Or “The elements used make this novel a sure-fire winner.”

7)  There should be no contractions in your paper.  Take them and spell them out.  For example, “won’t” should be “will not.” 

8)  Read through your paper and get rid of the following words: “very,” “really,” “like,” “real important,” “a lot,” and “interesting.”  These are empty words; they do not give enough detail.  They also contribute to informality in your paper.

9)  If you have several short sentences in a row, try to combine them into a longer sentence using a semi-colon or colon.  This will help your paper sound more formal.

10)  Check your spelling.  If you have spell check on your computer, use it.  Remember that some words are homophones, which mean they sound the same, but are spelled differently.  For example, “two,” “too,” and “to.”  To check these, ask a good speller for help.  Make sure you spell all author and character names correctly.

11)  Write out all acronyms the first time you use them, then you may use the abbreviation.  This includes states, countries, organizations, etc.

12)  Underline the title of novels, books, plays, newspapers, and magazines.  Titles of short stories, chapters, and poems should be in quotation marks.

13)  Never, ever, ever start a body paragraph with a quotation.



Now that you've read the assignment click on the
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Welcome to Your Note-Taking Tools

These tools will help you in taking notes from your sources. Be sure to use the note-taking tool required by your teacher!

Also, be sure to save your work to your Novell student folder!

Note-Taking Tools Citation Tools
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Documentation Guidelines


Book Entries | Periodical Entries | Encyclopedias
Electronic Database and Internet Resources | Other Resources

Parenthetical Documentation | Plagiarism

Citation Tools

Use these tools to generate an MLA, APA, or Chicago style references.

Book Entries

You must double-space within and between entries.

Most of the possible components of a book entry and the order in which they are normally arranged are listed as follows:

Author(s). "Title of a part of the book." Title of the book. Name of the editor, translator, or compiler. Edition used. Number(s) of the volume(s) used. Name of the series. Place of publication: Name of publisher, date of publication. Page numbers. Supplementary bibliographic information and annotation.

Below are examples of the most commonly used entries. Others may be found on pages 147-235 in the MLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition.

Book by One Author

Gardner, John. Grendel. New York: Vintage Books, 1989.

Book by Two or Three Authors

Archer, Elaine, Suzanne Holman, and Angela Sullivan. Women of the Western Plains. Chicago: Lone Star Press, 1998.

Book by More than Three Authors

McDaniel, David, et al. Ocean Disasters of the Twentieth Century. London: Monarch Press, 1996.

Book by a Corporate Author

American Diabetes Association.  Living with Diabetes. New York: Random House, 1994.

Book-Anonymous Author

A Guide to Touring Italy. Dallas: University of Dallas Press, 1999.

Multi-Volume Book

Jones, Harold L., ed. The Official Work of Stephen King. 2 vols. San Diego: Waterfront, 1989.

Book-In a Series

Shain, Charles E. "F. Scott Fitzgerald." American Writers. Ed. Leonardo Unger. Vol.4. New York: Scribners, 1974. 77-1000.

Critical Review

Losey. Brent. "I See You." A Collection of Personal Poetry. Ed. James Graham. St. Louis: Ocean Front Press, 1996. 47-48.

Book-One Editor

Porter, Roberta, ed. The Viewers Eye: A Critical Study of Advertising. New York: Holt, 1987.

Book-Two or Three Editors

Wong, Paul, and Cedric Rollins, eds. The History of the Calvary. Princeton: Princeton Press, 1978.

Book-More than Three Editors

Miller, Jason, et al., eds. Teaching Poe. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998.

A Translation

Dostoevsky, Fedor. Crime and Punishment. Trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonshy. New York: Vintage, 1996.

Anthology of Previously Published Articles

Norris, Matt. "A Real DogFight: Analyzing the Hound of the Baskervilles." English Literary Work 76 (1989): 133-140. Rpt. Twentieth-Century Literacy Criticism. Ed. Juan de Rodriquez. Vol. 43. New York: Norton, 1999. 230-237.

An Article in a Reference Book

"Feminism." The Harper Dictionary of Modern Thought. Ed. Alan Bullock and Stephen Trombley. New York: Vintage, 1996.

Introduction, Preface, Foreword or Afterword

Klar, Fred. Introduction. Blue Skies. By Richard Upton. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987. v-x.

A Pamphlet (Treat as a book)

Building a Fountain. San Diego: Home Institute, 1978.

Abbreviations for Missing Information

No place of publication
No publisher
No date of publication
No pages

Periodical Entries

Author(s). Article Title. Periodical Title. Date: Inclusive pages.

Magazine or Periodical

Cooper, Jessica. "Viet Nam Nurses." Time. 17 March 1989: 89-103.

An Article in a Scholarly Journal with Continuous Pagination

Nabokov, Fladimir."The Thunderstorm." Literary Cavalcade. January 2000: 12-14.


Flowers, Benjamin. "Cash for College." Washington Times. 8 April, late Ed.: E9.


Author(s). Article Title. Encyclopedia Title. Edition. Date.

Encyclopedia with Author (omit vol. and page numbers if alphabetically arranged)

Schmidt, Reba. "Rabbits." World Book Encyclopedia. 7th ed. 1975.

Encyclopedia without Author (do not cite editor of reference work)

"Ross, Betsy." Encyclopedia Britannica. 1986.

Electronic Databases and Internet Resources

Some of the following citations have been adapted for high school use. For a fuller explanation of electronic publication documentation seeMLA Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition. pages 207-230.

Author(s). "Document Title". Information about print publication* to include Publication Title Vol.Issue (Date): page numbers. Information about electronic publication to include Database Used. Date of access <URL>.

If the URL is extremely long, use site's home page. If all of the above information is not given, cite what is available.
For formatting information about the print publication see sections above.

Article in an Electronic Database

Bauerle, Bill. "Tree Placement: Does it Really Matter?" American Nurseryman. 201.2 (2005):28-30. Mas Ultra. EBSCO. 26 Apr. 2005 <>. 

"The Abolition Movement." ABC_Clio American History. 27 Oct. 2005 <>.

Article in an Electronic Encyclopedia

"Transcendentalism." Britannica Student Encyclopedia. 2005.

 Britannica Online School Edition. 29 May 2005 <>.

Kastan, David Scott.  "Shakespeare, William." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 13 May 2002 <>.

Professional or Corporate Website

Title of the site. Name of Editor if given. Date of publication/revision. Electronic publication information to include name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access electronic address or URL. 2005. Cable News Network. 2 March 2004 <>.

Personal Website or Homepage

Author(s). Home page. Date of posting/revision. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

Hart, Michael. Home page. 12 June 2000. 14 May 2003 <>.

Article or Page on a Website

Author(s). Title of Article or Page. Name of Web Site. Date of last update or revision. Name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.

"America in the 1930s Project." Ed. Kathleen M. Hogan. 1998. University of Virginia. 3 March 1999 <>.

Online Book

Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The Scarlet Letter. London, 1906. Project Guttenberg. Ed. Pietro Di Miceli. June 1992. University of Illinois at Urbana. 15 June 2000 <>.


Frost, Robert. "The Road Not Taken." The Poetry of Robert Frost. Ed. Edward Connery Lathem. 1944. Favorite Poem Project. 15 November 1999 Boston University. 13 February 2000 <>.


Author, "Title of message (from subject line)." E-mail to (name of recipient). Date of message.

Burns, Jane. "Writing Catch 22." E-mail to the author. 12 February 2000.

Other Resources


Grisham, John. Interview. All Things Considered. Natl. Public Radio. KSTX, San Antonio. 10 Oct. 1998.

TV or Radio Program

Title of the Episode or Segment.  Title of the Program. Narrator, director etc. if pertinent. Title of Series. Name of the network. Call letters, city of the local station. Broadcast date.

"The First Americans." Narr. Hugh Downs.  Writ. and prod. Craig Haffner. NBC News Special. KNSD, San Diego. 6 April 1994.

Jaws. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Roy Scheider, Robert Shaw, and Richard Dreyfuss. Universal Pictures. 1975.

Audio Recording

Author or performer. Title of Song. Title of Recording. Performance group, conductor and soloists (classical recordings). Publisher or Record Label, Year.

Lennon, John and Paul McCartney. Come Together. Abbey Road. EMI Records, 1987.

Handel, Georg Friedrich. Suite No. 1 F Major. Water Music Concerto Grosso Op. 3 No. 3. London Festival Orchestra. Cond. Ross Pople. Arte Nova, 1995.

Film or Video Recording

Title. Director. Performers if pertinent. Distributor, Year. Add Date Accessed <URL> when using a Streaming Video.

Jaws. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Roy Scheider, Robert Shaw, and Richard Dreyfuss. Universal Pictures. 1975.

Danny the Dinosaur. Weston Wood. 1990. United Learning. Nov. 2001 <>.

Work of Art, Photo or Image

Artist. Title of work. Name of institution, City. Add Date Accessed  <URL> when using online source.

DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. The Louvre, Paris.

O'Sullivan, Timothy H. Incidents of war. 1865. Selected Civil War Photographs from the Library of Congress, 1861-1865. 4 Jan. 2003 <>

Guidelines for Parenthetical Documentation within Text

Work by One Author

Give the authors last name and page numbers in parentheses.

Trains were once popular modes of transportation (White 8).

If you mention the authors last name in the sentence, give only the page number in parentheses.

According to Larry White, trains were once popular modes of transportation (8).

Work by More than One Author

Give the authors last names in the same order as stated on the Works Cited page and the page number in parentheses: (Jones and Miller 639). If a source has more than three authors, give the first authors last name follow by et al. and the page number: (Jones et al. 88)

Work with No Author Given

Give the title (or a shortened version of it) and the page number: (Railroads 11)

One of Two or More Works by the Same Author

Give the authors last name, the title or a shortened version of it, and the page number: (Reese, Planes 25)

Corporate Author

If a book or other work was written by a committee or task force, it is said to have a corporate author. If the corporate name is long, include it in the text (rather than in parentheses) to avoid disrupting the flow of writing. Use a shortened form of the name in the text and in references after the full name has been used at least once. Example: Use Education Committee in place of Education Committee Task Force for Secondary Rural Schools after the full name has been used at least once.

The finding of the Education Committee's report proves that students in rural school have fewer cases of violence than inner city schools.

Indirect or Secondary Sources

When citing an indirect source (someone's remarks published in a second source) use the abbreviation qtd. in (quoted in) before the indirect source.

Shakespeare was an economic backer for the Globe Theatre "which was burned to the ground after a performance" (qtd. in Smith 97).

Cite verse, plays, and poems by division--act, scene, canto, book, part--and line, using Arabic numerals for the divisions unless otherwise instructed. Use periods to separate the various numbers. If citing lines only, use the word line or lines in the first reference and numbers in additional references.

In the second act of the play, Sammy says, "I dont care Why should you?" (2.3.144-45).

Citing Poetry

A diagonal line is used to show each new line of verse.

Verse quotations of more than three lines should be indented one inch (ten spaces) and double-spaced.

Each line of the poem or play begins a new line of the quotation; do not run the lines together.

William Beauchamps poem "The Ocean" contains layer upon layer of specific details:

The Ocean was blue beyond the horizon.

Only we could not see

The bright orange sun,. . . (12-13)

Literary Works: Prose

To site prose (novels, short stories, etc.), list more than the page number of the work available in several editions. Give the page reference first, and then add a chapter, section, or book number in abbreviated form after a semicolon.

In The Car Wreck, Juan Carlos describes the emotional trauma of the incident as "no squealing of tires, only gnashing metal penetrated the lives of the two young women" (23; ch. 3).

When quoting prose that takes more than four typed lines, indent each line of the quotation one inch (10 spaces) and double space it. In this case, put the parenthetical citation outside the end punctuation mark of the quotation itself.

Two or More Works Cited at the Same Place

Use a semicolon to separate the entries:  (Morris et al. 89; Riley)

Electronic Sources

Give the authors last name, or if no author is named, give the title:  ("Ocean Storms")


Definition of Plagiarism

Plagiarism is the presentation of another writers ideas or words as if they were your own, without acknowledging the source.

Examples of Plagiarism

The brief passage below is taken from page 72 of the book Norman Mailer by Philip Bufithis (Ungar, 1978). Examples of how the passage might be plagiarized follow below.

Original Quote

To any reader who accepts the terms of Mailers vision, this book generates intoxication hope, for Rojack is a pioneer of the spirit: his explanations give us a felt sense of expanding possibilities for the self. Mailer has defined character what the classic American heroes of James Fenimore Cooper and Herman Melville tried to do before him-get away from the enfeeblements of civilization, the crush of history.

Copying Word for Word Without Quotation Marks or Acknowledging the Author the Source

To any reader who accepts the terms of Mailers vision, this book generates intoxicating hope, for Rojack is a pioneer of the spirit: his explorations give is a felt sense of expanding possibilities for the self. Mailer has defined character in this novel as an endless series of second chances.

Use of Some Key Words or Phrases Without Quotation Marks or Acknowledging the Author or the Source

An American Dream may be seen as an optimistic book, for Rojack is a pioneer of the spirit. He is an example of character defined as an endless series of second chances.

Note: Whether many or only a few key phrases are copied, they should be in quotation marks, with a source and author cited.

Paraphrasing, giving No Author or Source Credit

Rojack falls in the line of other American classic heroes created by James Fenimore Cooper and Herman Melville in his ardent individualism and his desire to escape the debilitating confines of society and accumulated weight of history.

Using an Authors Idea Without Crediting the Author or the Source

Rojack can be viewed as another Ahab or Deerslayer in his willingness to push the limits of his spiritual potential in the face of an inherently hostile universe. He struggles to redefine himself, in spite of the risk of self-destruction.

Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism

What To Do

  • Indicate clearly when you use anything from another writers work, even if only a phrase or single key word, by using quotation marks.
  • When summarizing or paraphrasing distinguish clearly where the ideas of others end and your own comments begin.
  • When using a writers idea, credit the author by name and also cite the work in which you found the idea.
  • Provide a new citation when using additional information from a previously cited work.
  • Err on the side of caution by giving credit whenever you suspect you are using information, other than general knowledge, from a source.

What Not To Do

  • Do not use facts, details, or ideas from a source without indication in some way that you are doing so.
  • Do not confuse your own ideas with others ideas discovered during your research. Even if your ideas resemble another writers, you must credit that writer and the work in which the idea is shared.

From WRITE FOR COLLEGE by Patrick Sebranek, Verne Meyer, and Dave Kemper. Copyright � 1997 by Great Source Education Group, Inc. All rights reserved.

North East ISD
San Antonio, Texas
April 2005