Use these tools to generate an MLA, APA, or Chicago style references.
must double-space within and between
the possible components of a book entry and the order in which they are
normally arranged are listed as follows:
Author(s). "Title of a part of the book." Title of the book. Name of the editor,
translator, or compiler. Edition used. Number(s) of the volume(s)
used. Name of the series. Place of publication: Name of publisher, date of publication.
Page numbers. Supplementary bibliographic information and annotation.
Below are examples of the most
commonly used entries. Others may be found on pages 147-235 in the MLA
Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth
Book by One Author
Gardner, John. Grendel. New
York: Vintage Books, 1989.
Book by Two or Three Authors
Archer, Elaine, Suzanne Holman,
and Angela Sullivan. Women of the Western Plains. Chicago: Lone
Star Press, 1998.
Book by More than Three Authors
McDaniel, David, et al. Ocean
Disasters of the Twentieth Century. London: Monarch Press,
Book by a Corporate Author
American Diabetes Association. Living with Diabetes. New York: Random House, 1994.
A Guide to Touring Italy. Dallas: University of Dallas Press, 1999.
Jones, Harold L., ed. The
Official Work of Stephen King. 2 vols. San Diego: Waterfront,
Book-In a Series
Shain, Charles E. "F. Scott
Fitzgerald." American Writers. Ed. Leonardo Unger. Vol.4. New York:
Scribners, 1974. 77-1000.
Losey. Brent. "I See You." A
Collection of Personal Poetry. Ed. James Graham. St. Louis:
Ocean Front Press, 1996. 47-48.
Porter, Roberta, ed. The
Viewers Eye: A Critical Study of Advertising. New York: Holt,
Book-Two or Three Editors
Wong, Paul, and Cedric Rollins,
eds. The History of the Calvary. Princeton: Princeton Press,
Book-More than Three Editors
Miller, Jason, et al., eds. Teaching Poe. Athens: University of Georgia Press, 1998.
Dostoevsky, Fedor. Crime and
Punishment. Trans. Richard Pevear and Larissa Volokhonshy. New York: Vintage, 1996.
Anthology of Previously Published Articles
Norris, Matt. "A Real DogFight: Analyzing the Hound of the Baskervilles." English Literary Work 76 (1989): 133-140. Rpt. Twentieth-Century Literacy Criticism. Ed. Juan de Rodriquez. Vol. 43. New York: Norton, 1999. 230-237.
An Article in a Reference Book
"Feminism." The Harper
Dictionary of Modern Thought. Ed. Alan Bullock and Stephen
Trombley. New York: Vintage, 1996.
Introduction, Preface, Foreword or Afterword
Klar, Fred. Introduction. Blue
Skies. By Richard Upton. Chicago: University of Chicago, 1987.
A Pamphlet (Treat as a book)
Building a Fountain. San
Diego: Home Institute, 1978.
Abbreviations for Missing Information
No place of publication
No date of publication
|top of page|
Author(s). Article Title. Periodical
Title. Date: Inclusive pages.
Magazine or Periodical
Cooper, Jessica. "Viet Nam Nurses." Time.
17 March 1989: 89-103.
An Article in a Scholarly Journal with Continuous
Thunderstorm." Literary Cavalcade. January 2000:
Flowers, Benjamin. "Cash for
College." Washington Times. 8 April, late Ed.: E9.
Article Title. Encyclopedia
Title. Edition. Date.
Encyclopedia with Author (omit vol. and page numbers if alphabetically arranged)
Schmidt, Reba. "Rabbits." World
Book Encyclopedia. 7th ed. 1975.
Encyclopedia without Author (do not cite editor of reference work)
"Ross, Betsy." Encyclopedia
Electronic Databases and Internet Resources
Some of the following citations have been adapted for high school
use. For a fuller explanation of electronic publication documentation seeMLA
Handbook for Writers of Research Papers, Sixth Edition. pages 207-230.
"Document Title". Information about print publication* to include Publication Title Vol.Issue
(Date): page numbers. Information about electronic publication
to include Database Used. Date of access <URL>.
If the URL is extremely long, use site's home
page. If all of the above information is not given, cite what is available.
For formatting information about the print publication see sections above.
Article in an Electronic Database
Bauerle, Bill. "Tree
Placement: Does it Really Matter?" American Nurseryman.
201.2 (2005):28-30. Mas Ultra. EBSCO. 26 Apr. 2005 <http://epnet.com>.
Abolition Movement." ABC_Clio American History. 27 Oct.
Article in an Electronic
"Transcendentalism." Britannica Student Encyclopedia. 2005.
School Edition. 29 May 2005 <http://school.eb.com>.
Kastan, David Scott. "Shakespeare, William." Microsoft Encarta Online Encyclopedia. 13
May 2002 <http://encarta.msn.com>.
Professional or Corporate Website
Title of the site. Name of Editor if given. Date of publication/revision. Electronic publication information
to include name of sponsoring institution or organization. Date of access electronic address or URL.
CNN.com. 2005. Cable News
Network. 2 March 2004 <http://www.cnn.com>.
Personal Website or Homepage
Author(s). Home page. Date of
posting/revision. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.
Hart, Michael. Home page. 12 June
2000. 14 May 2003 < http://promo.net/hart/>.
Article or Page on a Website
Author(s). Title of
Article or Page. Name of Web Site. Date of last update or
revision. Name of sponsoring institution or
organization. Date of access <electronic address or URL>.
"America in the 1930s Project." Ed. Kathleen M. Hogan. 1998. University of Virginia. 3 March 1999
Hawthorne, Nathaniel. The
Scarlet Letter. London, 1906. Project Guttenberg. Ed. Pietro Di
Miceli. June 1992. University of Illinois at Urbana. 15
June 2000 <ftp://metalab.unc.edu/pub/docs/books/gutenberg/etext92/scrlt11.txt>.
Frost, Robert. "The Road Not
Taken." The Poetry of Robert Frost. Ed. Edward Connery Lathem. 1944. Favorite Poem Project. 15 November 1999
Boston University. 13 February
Author, "Title of message (from subject line)." E-mail to (name of recipient). Date of message.
Burns, Jane. "Writing Catch
22." E-mail to the author. 12 February 2000.
Grisham, John. Interview. All
Things Considered. Natl. Public Radio. KSTX, San Antonio. 10 Oct. 1998.
TV or Radio Program
Title of the
Episode or Segment. Title of the Program. Narrator,
director etc. if pertinent. Title of Series. Name of the network. Call letters, city of the local station. Broadcast
"The First Americans." Narr. Hugh Downs. Writ. and prod. Craig
Haffner. NBC News Special. KNSD, San Diego. 6 April 1994.
Jaws. Dir. Steven Spielberg. Perf. Roy Scheider, Robert Shaw, and Richard Dreyfuss.
Universal Pictures. 1975.
Author or performer. Title of Song. Title of Recording. Performance group, conductor
and soloists (classical recordings). Publisher or Record Label, Year.
Lennon, John and Paul McCartney. Come Together. Abbey Road. EMI Records, 1987.
Handel, Georg Friedrich. Suite No. 1
F Major. Water Music Concerto Grosso Op. 3 No.
3. London Festival Orchestra. Cond. Ross Pople. Arte Nova, 1995.
Film or Video Recording
Title. Director. Performers
if pertinent. Distributor, Year. Add Date Accessed <URL> when using a
Jaws. Dir. Steven
Spielberg. Perf. Roy Scheider, Robert Shaw, and Richard Dreyfuss.
Universal Pictures. 1975.
Danny the Dinosaur. Weston
Wood. 1990. United Learning. Nov. 2001 <http://www.klrn.unitedstreaming.com>.
Work of Art, Photo or Image
Artist. Title of work. Name of institution,
City. Add Date Accessed <URL> when using online source.
DaVinci, Leonardo. Mona Lisa. The Louvre, Paris.
O'Sullivan, Timothy H. Incidents of war.
1865. Selected Civil War Photographs from the Library of Congress,
1861-1865. 4 Jan. 2003 <http://memory.loc.gov/ammen/cwphome.html>
for Parenthetical Documentation within Text
Work by One
Give the authors last name and page numbers in parentheses.
Trains were once popular
modes of transportation (White 8).
If you mention the authors last
name in the sentence, give only the page number in parentheses.
According to Larry White,
trains were once popular modes of transportation (8).
Work by More than One Author
Give the authors last names in
the same order as stated on the Works Cited page and the page number in
parentheses: (Jones and Miller 639). If a source has more than three authors, give the first authors last name follow by et al.
and the page number: (Jones et al. 88)
Work with No Author Given
Give the title (or a shortened
version of it) and the page number: (Railroads 11)
One of Two or More Works by the Same Author
Give the authors last name, the
title or a shortened version of it, and the page number: (Reese, Planes 25)
If a book or other work was
written by a committee or task force, it is said to have a corporate author. If the corporate name is long, include it in the
text (rather than in parentheses) to avoid disrupting the flow of writing.
Use a shortened form of the name in the text and in references after the
full name has been used at least once. Example: Use Education
Committee in place of Education Committee Task Force for Secondary
Rural Schools after the full name has been used at least
The finding of the Education
Committee's report proves that students in rural school have fewer
cases of violence than inner city schools.
Indirect or Secondary Sources
When citing an indirect source (someone's remarks published in a second
source) use the abbreviation qtd. in (quoted in) before the indirect
Shakespeare was an economic
backer for the Globe Theatre "which was burned to the ground
after a performance" (qtd. in Smith 97).
Cite verse, plays, and poems by
division--act, scene, canto, book, part--and line, using Arabic numerals
for the divisions unless otherwise instructed. Use periods to separate the
various numbers. If citing lines only, use the word line or lines in the first reference and numbers in additional
In the second act of the play,
Sammy says, "I dont care Why should you?" (2.3.144-45).
A diagonal line is
used to show each new line of verse.
Verse quotations of more than
three lines should be indented one inch (ten spaces) and
Each line of the poem or play
begins a new line of the quotation; do not run the lines together.
William Beauchamps poem "The
Ocean" contains layer upon layer of specific details:
The Ocean was blue beyond the horizon.
Only we could not see
The bright orange sun,. . . (12-13)
Literary Works: Prose
To site prose (novels, short
stories, etc.), list more than the page number of the work available in
several editions. Give the page reference first, and then add a chapter,
section, or book number in abbreviated form after a semicolon.
In The Car Wreck, Juan
Carlos describes the emotional trauma of the incident as "no squealing
of tires, only gnashing metal penetrated the lives of the two young
women" (23; ch. 3).
When quoting prose that takes more
than four typed lines, indent each line of the quotation one inch (10
spaces) and double space it. In this case, put the parenthetical citation
outside the end punctuation mark of the quotation itself.
Two or More Works Cited at the Same Place
Use a semicolon to separate the
entries: (Morris et al. 89; Riley)
Give the authors last name, or if
no author is named, give the title: ("Ocean Storms")
Definition of Plagiarism
Plagiarism is the presentation of
another writers ideas or words as if they were your own, without
acknowledging the source.
Examples of Plagiarism
The brief passage below is taken
from page 72 of the book Norman Mailer by Philip Bufithis (Ungar,
1978). Examples of how the passage might be plagiarized follow below.
To any reader who accepts the
terms of Mailers vision, this book generates intoxication hope, for
Rojack is a pioneer of the spirit: his explanations give us a felt sense
of expanding possibilities for the self. Mailer has defined character
what the classic American heroes of James Fenimore Cooper and Herman
Melville tried to do before him-get away from the enfeeblements of
civilization, the crush of history.
Copying Word for Word Without
Quotation Marks or Acknowledging the Author the Source
To any reader who accepts the
terms of Mailers vision, this book generates intoxicating hope, for
Rojack is a pioneer of the spirit: his explorations give is a felt sense
of expanding possibilities for the self. Mailer has defined character in
this novel as an endless series of second chances.
Use of Some Key Words or Phrases
Without Quotation Marks or Acknowledging the Author or the Source
An American Dream may be
seen as an optimistic book, for Rojack is a pioneer of the spirit. He is
an example of character defined as an endless series of second
many or only a few key phrases are copied, they should be in quotation
marks, with a source and author cited.
Paraphrasing, giving No Author or Source Credit
Rojack falls in the line of
other American classic heroes created by James Fenimore Cooper and
Herman Melville in his ardent individualism and his desire to escape the
debilitating confines of society and accumulated weight of
Using an Authors Idea Without Crediting the Author or the Source
Rojack can be viewed as another
Ahab or Deerslayer in his willingness to push the limits of his
spiritual potential in the face of an inherently hostile universe. He
struggles to redefine himself, in spite of the risk of
Guidelines for Avoiding Plagiarism
What To Do
- Indicate clearly when you use
anything from another writers work, even if only a phrase or single key
word, by using quotation marks.
- When summarizing or paraphrasing
distinguish clearly where the ideas of others end and your own comments
- When using a writers idea,
credit the author by name and also cite the work in which you found the
Provide a new citation when
using additional information from a previously cited work.
Err on the side of caution by
giving credit whenever you suspect you are using information, other than
general knowledge, from a source.
What Not To Do
- Do not use facts, details, or
ideas from a source without indication in some way that you are doing
- Do not confuse your own ideas
with others ideas discovered during your research. Even if your ideas
resemble another writers, you must credit that writer and the work in
which the idea is shared.
From WRITE FOR COLLEGE by Patrick
Sebranek, Verne Meyer, and Dave Kemper. Copyright ï¿½ 1997 by Great Source Education Group, Inc. All rights